Ayotzinapa

A Roar of Silence

On September 26, 2014, students from the Escuela Normal Rural de Ayotzinapa in the Mexican state of Guerrero boarded buses to attend a demonstration in Mexico City commemorating the anniversary of the 1968 Tlatelolco massacre, in which as many as 3,000 students were killed by Mexican police officers and military troops.

On their way to Mexico City, the students were to stop in the small town of Iguala to protest a political event held by the mayor and his wife. As the students arrived in Iguala, the buses were violently intercepted by local police. While details of the confrontation remain unclear, the police eventually opened fire, killing six and wounding twenty-five. Another 43 student teachers were witnessed being herded into police vehicles—and never seen again.

After months of inaction and incompetence, the Mexican government released an official statement claiming that the Iguala police had handed the students over to a local drug cartel, the Guerreros Unidos, who later incinerated all 43 bodies in a nearby garbage dump. While the Mexican government hoped to close the case on the missing students, experts have pointed out that their claims are implausible, inconsistent, and scientifically unsound. The families of the missing students—with the support of the international community—continue to search for the truth. 

Just eight weeks after the disappearances, internationally renowned artist and activist Francisco Toledo, in conjunction with the Instituto de Artes Gráficas de Oaxaca (IAGO), launched an open call encouraging artists from all over the world to submit work centered on the 43 missing students for an exhibition titled Carteles de Ayotzinapa. Over seven hundred pieces were submitted by artists from Mexico, Iran, Poland, Spain, Portugal, China, Greece, and more. The final forty-three were displayed at the Museo de Memoria y Tolerancia in Mexico City, along with an installation of 43 kites—each displaying the face of one of the missing students—created by Toledo and participants of an “Art and Paper” workshop in Oaxaca. Proceeds raised by the exhibition went to the families of the disappeared students.

Social and Public Art Resource Center (SPARC), Center for the Study of Political Graphics (CSPG), ArtDivision, and Self-Help Graphics & Art are working together to bring Toledo’s important, international exhibition to the United States for the first time. Ayotzinapa: A Roar of Silence traveled throughout Los Angeles with the help of organizations committed to using art as a tool for change.  This series invites the LA community to support and amplify the roar for justice heard from Ayotzinapa and throughout the world.

Ayotzinapa: A Roar of Silence is available as a traveling exhibition.


 For more information about bringing this exhibition to your institution, please contact us at admin@politicalgraphics.org  or (310) 397-3100.

Below is a non-exhaustive timeline of events following the 26th of September, 2014.

Timeline of Events

2014

September 26, 2014:

100+ students from Tixla’s Ayotzinapa Rural Teachers’ College were attacked by armed police while on their way to Iguala to commandeer buses as transportation to a Mexico City rally on the anniversary of the 1968 Tlatelolco Massacre.

By the end of the day, 6 people were dead:
students Daniel Solís Gallardo and Julio César Ramírez Nava; David Josué García Evangelista (15 years old), Blanca Montiel Sánchez (victim of a stray bullet), and Víctor Manuel Lugo Ortiz (bus driver of the football team).

Aldo Gutiérrez Solano, found shot in the head and left for dead, was in coma was a 20% chance for survival.

 

In the aftermath of the attack, 43 students were missing.

Julio César Mondragón Fontes

Source: Running For Ayotzinapa 43

September 27:

Julio César Mondragón Fontes' body is found in the middle of a busy street; police deny any involvement.

 

September 28:
Guerreros Unidos cartel members are blamed for the disappearance and 22 police officers are arrested.

November 6:

Iguala Mayor José Luis Abarca Velázquez and his wife, María de los Ángeles Pineda, are arrested on suspicion regarding involvement regarding the disappeared students.

November 8:

Local gang members confess to killing then burning the remains of the missing students; parents of the victims are skeptical.

November 27:

President Enrique Peña Nieto introduces 10 point plan to address corruption in light of the Ayotzinapa case.

October 1:

Iguala mayor José Luis Abarca goes into hiding.

Source: The Washington Post

Washington Post.jpg

October 6:

President Enrique Peña Nieto officially addresses the missing Ayotzinapa students.

Source: The Latin Times

Latin Times president Pena.jpg

 

October 7:

Federal authorities take over the investigation of the missing students.

October 22:

Abarca and his wife are accused of ordering the attack on the Ayotzinapa students.

angel-aguirre-rivero-1.jpg

October 23:

Under mounting pressure, Guerrero governor Angel Aguirre Rivero resigns.

Source: La Otra Opinión

 

October 28:

Tomás Zerón, head of the AIC, is believed to have taken suspect Agustín “El Chereje” García Reyes to a crime scene without proper authorization nor a lawyer. This was not recorded in official documents.

Source: Tehuacan Digital

December 7:

 Alexander Mora Venancio's remains are identified by the Austrian Innsbruck Medical University.

Source: Running For Ayotzinapa 43

Screen Shot 2019-06-19 at 5.36.02 PM cop.jpg

December 15:

Leaked documents show that federal authorities were aware of a planned attack by corrupt police on the Ayotzinapa students.

December 13:

Journalist Anabel Hernandez reveals that Federal police, in collaboration with the army, are responsible for the attack. She also alleges that the students' movements as they left Tixtla were monitored by Control, Command, Communications and Computation, a government run information command post. Survivors, of the attack however, refute that the army were involved. 

2015

January 14:

Iguala mayor Abarca is formally accused of ordering the attack and disappearance of the students.

January 27:

Procuraduría General de la República, the office of the attorney general, Jesus Murillo Karam, announces based on 39 confessions, 386 declarations, 487 forensic tests, 16 raids and two reconstructions, investigators concluded that municipal police arrested the youths in the city of Iguala on 26 September and handed them over to the Guerreros Unidos cartel, declaring this to be the "historical truth".

Source: Eje Central Mexico

September 23:

An investigation by Mexican news magazine Proceso claims motivation behind the September 24, 2014 attack is theorized to be an attempted recovery of a heroin shipment worth $2 million smuggled on the students' bus.

April 27:

María de los Ángeles Pineda, wife of the mayor of Iguala, is announced to not be charged in the students' disappearance. 

2016

February 9:

Independent forensic research contradicts Mexican authorities’ findings: no evidence to support the official conclusion that the students’ remains were burned in a landfill near Cocula in Guerrero.

cocula investigators search the dump for remains, source mexico news daily.jpg

Source: Vice

July 26

Special Follow-Up Mechanism for the Ayotzinapa Case (MESA) is created by Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, an autonomous body of the  Organization of American States (OAS), that monitors human rights in the area, through Resolution 42/16  to monitor the Ayotzinapa case investigation, in accordance with  Precautionary Measure 409/14, originally issued in October 2014.

April 15:

Witness testimony states that federal police and local police were present when the 43 students were disappeared, even participating in the attack.

April 24

A report from GIEI (Grupo Interdisciplinario de Expertos Independientes), appointed by Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR) determined a concerted effort of a cover-up by the Mexican government in investigating the Ayotzinapa students. 

Furthermore, it states that the official, government-issued report is based off of testimonies acquired via torturing suspects. 

2017

July 10:

A report released indicates that international human rights officials investigating the disappearances were targeted by spyware in March 2016.

2018

June 4:

Federal court ruled that the Ayotzinapa investigation “was not prompt, effective, independent or impartial.” As such the Attorney General’s Office was to re-investigate the missing students by creating a Truth Commission. 

June 13:

44 defendants in the Ayotzinapa case are released.

October 8:

Aldo Gutiérrez Solano returned to a care facility built for him in Ayutla.

March 16:

United Nations’ Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights publishes a report accusing authorities of a cover up in the handling of the Ayotzinapa case, covering errors early in the investigation, arbitrary detainment, torturing suspects and delaying the investigation.

September 26:

Following his presidential victory, then president-elect Andrés Manuel López Obrador
vows to pursue justice for the missing Ayotzinapa students with the support of their parents.

Obrador victory, International Business

Source: International Business Times India

December 3: 

President Andrés Manuel López Obrador creates the Presidential Commission for Truth and Access to Justice in the Ayotzinapa case (CoVAJ-Ayotzinapa), whose official purpose to the victims' families achieve justice and discover the truth behind the forced disappearance.

2019

January 28:

Aldo Gutiérrez Solano returned to his family to celebrate his birthday.

July 24:

Comisión Nacional de los Derechos Humanos, Mexico’s national human rights commission, demands for an investigation into 375 public officials believed to obstruct the Ayotzinapa investigation.

TDKYPBKTCRDR5G525EB3M7NXQM.jpg

November 21-29:

The FGR recovers remains in the the Barranca La Carnicería ravine in Cocula.

Source: Reuters

June 26:

the Attorney General’s Office (FGR) establishes the Special Unit for the Investigation and Litigation of the Ayotzinapa Case, which seeks to investigate the events and persons relevant to the Ayotzinapa case.

September 3:

Alleged Guerreros Unidos leader and prominent figure in the Ayotzinapa case is acquitted and released.

September 16:

21 Iguala municipal police officers in connection with the 2014 attack are released due to the prior government's use of torture to obtain information.

September 18:

Attorney General Alejandro Gertz Manero announces an entirely new investigation into the events after meeting with the missing students' parents .

2020

February 12:

Supreme Court Chief Justice Arturo Zaldívar and Attorney General Alejandro Gertz Manero collaborate in investigating the 43 students' disappearance, as proposed by President López Obrador.

May 7:

Zerón is confirmed to have fled Mexico following an arrest warrant issued for him in March.

July 1:

Attorney General Alejandro Gertz Manero announces prosecutors have requested 46 warrants for the arrest of Guerrero municipal officials in connection with the disappearance and presumed murder of 43 teaching students in September 2014.

July 7:

Christian Alfonso Rodríguez Telumbre’s remains identified after their March discovery in a ravine located 800 meters away from the Cocula garage dump, further discrediting the "historical truth" narrative of the previous Peña Nieto government.

Source: Running For Ayotzinapa 43

July 10:

Mexico request Canada to arrest and extradite Zerón.

March 5:

The missing students' parents ask President López Obrador for the Financial Intelligence Unit to investigate public officials implicated in  the Ayotzinapa case.

March 17:

Ezequiel Peña Cerda, a former Criminal Investigation Agency (AIC) director,  Ariel Agustín Castillo Reyes, a former member of the Mexican Navy, and Isidro Junco Baraja, the former director of special teams from the federal investigative police are arrested on charges of torturing an alleged perpetrator of the attacks.

Source: Grupo Fórmula

March 18:

Tomás Zerón, former head of the AIC, is pursued by prosecutors regarding irregularities in his investigation of the missing students. His charges include evidence tampering, torture, forced disappearances, prohibiting the administration of justice, and crime scene altering.

Mexico has asked Interpol to issue a red notice calling for the arrest Tomás Zerón.

June 30:

Attorney General Alejandro Gertz Manero announces 46 warrants requested for the arrest of Guerrero municipal officials in connection with the disappeared students.

September 27:

Mexican President Obrador announces the arrests of 80 people made since March, including military personnel, criminal group members, and police.

2021

January 21:

A witness, “Juan”, alleges that soldiers were involved in the attack, detaining them, then interrogating them at a base before handing them off to the Guerreros Unidos gang.

 

As a result, the Mexican Army pledges to cooperate with authorities.

April 27:

Another arrest warrant is issued for Zerón's arrest by Mexico's federal prosecutor's office for "probable torture".

March 18:

A new arrest warrant is issued by Mexico City's Federal Justice Center for Tomás Zerón's arrest.

June 15:

Austria's University of Innsbruck positively identifies  

Jhosivani Guerrero de la Cruz's remains.

Source: Running For Ayotzinapa 43

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